Cardiovascular Ultrasonography in Cattle

 Diagnosing heart disease in cattle is challenging because clinical signs can be hidden
until signs of congestive heart failure occur. An early diagnosis is of primary importance because the prognosis of the most common heart disorders ranges from
guarded to poor.
1 Ancillary tests, such as complete cell blood count and serum
biochemistry panel, may lack the sensitivity or specificity to detect heart disease

Effect of lactation on functional and morphological echocardiographic variables in adult dairy cows

 Lactation challenges the homeostatic mechanisms
of ruminants, especially those controlling the
cardiovascular system. Blood flow to the mammary
gland is directly related to milk production.
1,2 In
dairy goats, although cardiac dimensions are not
influenced by milking and pregnancy status, cardiac
output is increased during pregnancy and lactation
when compared to the dry period.
3 Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the
heart and hemodynamic status in veterinary
species. Echocardiography has been used in small
animals and horses for the diagnosis and follow-up
of many cardiac and non-cardiac disorders.

Evaluation of Four 2-Dimensional Echocardiographic Methods of Assessing Left Atrial Size in Dogs

 Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is the cornerstone of noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac patient, and often involves
estimating left atrial (LA) size. However, 2D echocardiographic methods of estimating LA size have been inadequately described,
and most reference intervals are based on M-mode echocardiographic measurements. We determined reference intervals for 4
different 2D echocardiographic methods of estimating LA size in adult (
9-month-old) dogs without cardiovascular disease. 

Colour flow Doppler echocardiography in normal horses

 Colour flow Doppler echocardiographyis a technique that is
used with two-dimensional (2-D)echocardiography to study
blood flow patterns in the heart and blood vessels.
method was used to define normal flow patterns and to
evaluate valvular function in 40 clinically normal
Thoroughbred and Thoroughbred cross horses. Flow patterns
from 10 standardised echocardiographic images were
described in relation to anatomic landmarks and timing
during the cardiac cycle. Consistent intracardiac
patterns were identified in the normal horses

An Ovine Model of Chronic Heart Failure: Echocardiographic and Tissue Doppler Imaging Characterization

 Background and aim of the study: Heart failure in the western world is a major health-care
issue. In order to validate novel surgical or pharmacological treatments, reproducible animal models of left
ventricular dysfunction are necessary. In the current study, we report our data and experience with a model
of toxin-induced heart failure in the sheep.

Reference values for echocardiographic parameters and indexes of left ventricular function in healthy, young adult sheep used in translational research: comparison with standardized values in humans

 Ovine models of ischemic heart disease and cardiac failure are increasingly used in translational research.
However, reliable extrapolation of the results to the clinical setting requires knowing if ovine normal left ventricular
(LV) function is comparable to that of humans. We thus assessed for echocardiographic LV dimensions and indexes
in a large normal adult sheep population and compared them with standardized values in normal human adults. Bidimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiograms were performed in 69 young adult Corriedale sheep under light sedation. LV dimensions and indexes of systolic and diastolic function were measured.

Ultrasonographic examination of the heart in sheep

 In sheep, echocardiography (ultrasonographic examination of the heart) includes two-dimensional examination,
with which right or left parasternal images are taken, employed to image the various anatomical structures of the
heart, M-mode examination, employed to image one-dimensional views of the heart visualised over time, and
conventional Doppler examination, employed to record normal blood flow velocities through the cardiac valves
and great vessels and to detect abnormalities of blood flow through these structures and through the interatrial or
interventricular septum.

Comparison of the Repeatability of Echocardiographic Measurements from Different Modes and Views in Horses of Various Breeds and Sizes

 The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability of echocardiographic measurements obtained
from different echocardiographic modes and views in
healthy adult equids of various sizes, breeds, and thorax
shapes. Ten equids (body weight: 120–662 kg; age:
1–26 years) from various breeds, free of cardiac disease,
were used in this study. Each animal was submitted to
a standardized echocardiographic and Doppler protocol
3 times at 1 day interval.

Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in normal horses

 Reference values were established for selected Doppler
derived variables from a group of 40 normal Thoroughbred
and Thoroughbred
cross horses. Standard two-dimensional
(2-D) images used for guiding the Doppler sampling site
allowed accurate alignment with flow. ‘Ikicuspid idlow
velocities during rapid filling (E) and atrial contraction (A)
were significantly higher when recorded from a right
parasternal angled view than from a right parasternal longaxis view

Reproducible Echocardiography in Juvenile Sheep and its Application in the Evaluation of a Pulmonary Valve Homograft Implant

 Increased use of the ovine animal model in cardiovascular surgical research has created a salient need for standardized
echocardiography techniques. To demonstrate a reproducible image in this species and confirm the validity of echocardiography as a
diagnostic tool, we implanted 10 sheep with a pulmonary valve homograft and monitored them through weekly echocardiographic
examinations until 20 weeks after implantation.

Practical Use of Ultrasound Scan in Small Ruminant Medicine and Surgery

 Many veterinarians in food animal practice routinely use transrectal ultrasonographic
examination for the early detection, and possibly sexing, of bovine embryos
using 5-MHz linear array scanners. This equipment can also be used in adult sheep
to provide diagnostic quality ultrasound images except for the kidney and heart; a
5- to 6.5-MHz sector scanner is often necessary in sheep less than 30 kg.

Methods and normal values for echocardiography in adult dairy cattle

 The objective of the study was to report normal ultrasonographic appearance and intra-cardiac dimensions in two dairy breeds and to calculate cardiac output (CO) using echocardiography.
Background: Intra-cardiac dimensions, time indices and CO estimation have not
previously been reported in adult cattle.
Animals, materials and methods: Echocardiograms were obtained from healthy
adult dairy cows (10 Jersey (J) and 12 Holstein Friesians (HF)) in the body weight
range of 400 to 700 kg. .

Two dimensional and m-mode echocardiography in normal healthy Egyptian zarabi goats

 Echocardiography and intra-cardiac dimensions have not previously
been reported in adult egyptian zarabi goats despite its potential
application for medical purpose. The chests of 11 adult male goats were
examined at 3
th – 6th intercostal space on both sides of the thorax using
2.6-6 MHz convex transducer. All chambers of the heart were clearly
visualized in the parasternal long axis view from both sides.

Multimodal Fetal Transesophageal Echocardiography for Fetal Cardiac Intervention in Sheep

 The overall performance of available mechanical intravascular ultrasound catheters for fetal transesophageal
echocardiography during fetoscopic fetal cardiac interventions in sheep has been limited by radioelectronic interference,
low system frame rates, and low acoustic outputs. Therefore, a more reliable device is desired for human fetoscopic
surgical procedures.

Normal echocardiographic findings in LoriBakhtiari sheep

 The assessment of heart parameters in healthy animals for evaluation of heart structure, function and cardiovascular disease
are necessary and important. Material and method: In this study 20 healthy Lori-Bakhtiari sheep (ten males and ten females) of one year age
and weights 42±3 kg were selected. The echocardiography was done in 4th and 5th intercostal spaces in the longitudinal and transverse views.
Results: The values obtained are: the left ventricular internal diameter at end systole and end diastole was 1.50 and 2.70 cm, respectively; left
ventricular free wall at end systole and end diastole was 1.69 and 0.93 cm, respectively; inter ventricular septum at end systole and end diastole was 1.45 and 0.92 cm, respectively;

Echocardiography for the Assessment of Congenital Heart Defects in Calves

 Congenital heart disease (CHD) in calves is uncommon, being observed in less than
0.2% of all bovine hearts inspected in 2 large necropsy studies.
1,2 A diagnosis of
CHD is suspected following a history of ill thrift, poor growth, respiratory disease
that fails to respond to appropriate therapy, and/or if a heart murmur is detected on
physical examination.

Echocardiography of the normal bovine heart: technique and ultrasonographic appearance

 Fifty-one clinically healthy cows were examined ultrasonographically from the third and fourth intercostal
spaces on both sides of the thorax. A 3-0 MHz transducer was used and the heart was examined in the
long, caudal short and cranial long axes on the right side, and in the caudal and cranial long axes on
the left side. In each position the optimal transducer orientation and the images of the structures were
recorded. In the caudal long axis view of the heart on the right (transducer positioned at the fourth
intercostal space),

Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

 Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete
reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability
of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac
dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats.
Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in
the standing unsedated animal.

Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

 Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic
tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly
documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the
reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler
echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one
day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right
parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view

Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats

 Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species.
Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly
documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability
and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode
echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated
three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode
echocardiographic protocol